Phishing is an attempt to use electronic communications to fraudulently gain access to user information. A phishing email may ask for personal information, such as your password. You should never provide sensitive information by replying to the message or clicking links within the message.
Spear phishing attacks are more targeted than general phishing attempts. They use information specific to the recipient, for example, the sender might appear to be your boss, or the message indicates an emergency in your location. They rely on social engineering, employing methods that elicit a "fight or flight" response under pressure. When the message evokes concern or anxiety, combined with the apparent need for an immediate reply, it can be difficult to discern that the message is a cyberattack. There is no perfect technical solution for this problem; instead it requires each email recipient to participate in the solution by not providing the confidential or financial items requested.